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[代码交流] [转]每天一个linux命令(54):ping命令

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发表于 2017-8-22 23:24:32 |显示全部楼层
Linux系统的ping命令是常用的网络命令,它通常用来测试与目标主机的连通性,我们经常会说“ping一下某机器,看是不是开着”、不能打开网页时会说“你先ping网关地址192.168.1.1试试”。它通过发送ICMP ECHO_REQUEST数据包到网络主机(send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts),并显示响应情况,这样我们就可以根据它输出的信息来确定目标主机是否可访问(但这不是绝对的)。有些服务器为了防止通过ping探测到,通过防火墙设置了禁止ping或者在内核参数中禁止ping,这样就不能通过ping确定该主机是否还处于开启状态。
linux下的ping和windows下的ping稍有区别,linux下ping不会自动终止,需要按ctrl+c终止或者用参数-c指定要求完成的回应次数。
1.命令格式:
ping [参数] [主机名或IP地址]
2.命令功能:
ping命令用于:确定网络和各外部主机的状态;跟踪和隔离硬件和软件问题;测试、评估和管理网络。如果主机正在运行并连在网上,它就对回送信号进行响应。每个回送信号请求包含一个网际协议(IP)和 ICMP 头,后面紧跟一个 tim 结构,以及来填写这个信息包的足够的字节。缺省情况是连续发送回送信号请求直到接收到中断信号(Ctrl-C)。
ping 命令每秒发送一个数据报并且为每个接收到的响应打印一行输出。ping 命令计算信号往返时间和(信息)包丢失情况的统计信息,并且在完成之后显示一个简要总结。ping 命令在程序超时或当接收到 SIGINT 信号时结束。Host 参数或者是一个有效的主机名或者是因特网地址。
3.命令参数:
-d 使用Socket的SO_DEBUG功能。
-f  极限检测。大量且快速地送网络封包给一台机器,看它的回应。
-n 只输出数值。
-q 不显示任何传送封包的信息,只显示最后的结果。
-r 忽略普通的Routing Table,直接将数据包送到远端主机上。通常是查看本机的网络接口是否有问题。
-R 记录路由过程。
-v 详细显示指令的执行过程。
<p>-c 数目:在发送指定数目的包后停止。
-i 秒数:设定间隔几秒送一个网络封包给一台机器,预设值是一秒送一次。
-I 网络界面:使用指定的网络界面送出数据包。
-l 前置载入:设置在送出要求信息之前,先行发出的数据包。
-p 范本样式:设置填满数据包的范本样式。
-s 字节数:指定发送的数据字节数,预设值是56,加上8字节的ICMP头,一共是64ICMP数据字节。
-t 存活数值:设置存活数值TTL的大小。
4.使用实例:
实例1:ping的通的情况
命令:
ping 192.168.120.205
输出:
[root@localhost ~]# ping 192.168.120.205
PING 192.168.120.205 (192.168.120.205) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.120.205: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.720 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.205: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.181 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.205: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.191 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.205: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.188 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.205: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.189 ms

--- 192.168.120.205 ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 4000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.181/0.293/0.720/0.214 ms
[root@localhost ~]#
说明:


实例2:ping不通的情况
命令:
ping 192.168.120.202
输出:
[root@localhost ~]# ping 192.168.120.202
PING 192.168.120.202 (192.168.120.202) 56(84) bytes of data.
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unrea**le
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=2 Destination Host Unrea**le
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=3 Destination Host Unrea**le
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=4 Destination Host Unrea**le
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=5 Destination Host Unrea**le
From 192.168.120.204 icmp_seq=6 Destination Host Unrea**le

--- 192.168.120.202 ping statistics ---
8 packets transmitted, 0 received, +6 errors, 100% packet loss, time 7005ms
, pipe 4
[root@localhost ~]#
说明:


实例3:ping网关
命令:
ping -b 192.168.120.1
输出:

[
root@localhost ~]# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
192.168.120.0   *               255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth0
192.168.0.0     192.168.120.1   255.255.0.0     UG    0      0        0 eth0
10.0.0.0        192.168.120.1   255.0.0.0       UG    0      0        0 eth0
default         192.168.120.240 0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth0
[root@localhost ~]# ping -b 192.168.120.1
PING 192.168.120.1 (192.168.120.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.120.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=2.02 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=1.83 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=1.68 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=255 time=1.98 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=255 time=1.88 ms

--- 192.168.120.1 ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 4000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.682/1.880/2.020/0.129 ms
说明:


实例4:ping指定次数
命令:
ping -c 10 192.168.120.206
输出:
[root@localhost ~]# ping -c 10 192.168.120.206
PING 192.168.120.206 (192.168.120.206) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.25 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.260 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.242 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.271 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.274 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=6 ttl=64 time=0.295 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=7 ttl=64 time=0.269 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=8 ttl=64 time=0.270 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=9 ttl=64 time=0.253 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=10 ttl=64 time=0.289 ms

--- 192.168.120.206 ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 10 received, 0% packet loss, time 9000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.242/0.367/1.251/0.295 ms
[root@localhost ~]#
说明:


实例5:时间间隔和次数限制的ping
命令:
ping -c 10 -i 0.5 192.168.120.206
输出:
[root@localhost ~]# ping -c 10 -i 0.5 192.168.120.206
PING 192.168.120.206 (192.168.120.206) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.24 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.235 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.244 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.300 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.255 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=6 ttl=64 time=0.264 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=7 ttl=64 time=0.263 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=8 ttl=64 time=0.331 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=9 ttl=64 time=0.247 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=10 ttl=64 time=0.244 ms

--- 192.168.120.206 ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 10 received, 0% packet loss, time 4499ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.235/0.362/1.241/0.294 ms
[root@localhost ~]# ping -c 10 -i 0.01 192.168.120.206
PING 192.168.120.206 (192.168.120.206) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.244 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.195 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.219 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.204 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=3.56 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=6 ttl=64 time=1.93 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=7 ttl=64 time=0.193 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=8 ttl=64 time=0.193 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=9 ttl=64 time=0.202 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=10 ttl=64 time=0.211 ms

--- 192.168.120.206 ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 10 received, 0% packet loss, time 90ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.193/0.716/3.564/1.080 ms
[root@localhost ~]#
说明:


实例6:通过域名ping公网上的站点
命令:
ping -c 5 www.58.com
输出:
peida-VirtualBox ~ # ping -c 5 www.58.com
PING www.58.com (211.151.111.30) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 211.151.111.30: icmp_req=1 ttl=49 time=14.7 ms
64 bytes from 211.151.111.30: icmp_req=2 ttl=49 time=16.4 ms
64 bytes from 211.151.111.30: icmp_req=3 ttl=49 time=15.2 ms
64 bytes from 211.151.111.30: icmp_req=4 ttl=49 time=14.6 ms
64 bytes from 211.151.111.30: icmp_req=5 ttl=49 time=19.9 ms

--- www.58.com ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 20101ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 14.618/16.192/19.917/1.965 ms
peida-VirtualBox ~ #
说明:


实例7:多参数使用
命令:
ping -i 3 -s 1024 -t 255 192.168.120.206
输出:
[root@localhost ~]# ping -i 3 -s 1024 -t 255 192.168.120.206
PING 192.168.120.206 (192.168.120.206) 1024(1052) bytes of data.
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.99 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.694 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.300 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.481 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=0.415 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=6 ttl=64 time=0.600 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=7 ttl=64 time=0.411 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=8 ttl=64 time=0.281 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=9 ttl=64 time=0.318 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=10 ttl=64 time=0.362 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=11 ttl=64 time=0.408 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=12 ttl=64 time=0.445 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=13 ttl=64 time=0.397 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=14 ttl=64 time=0.406 ms
1032 bytes from 192.168.120.206: icmp_seq=15 ttl=64 time=0.458 ms

--- 192.168.120.206 ping statistics ---
15 packets transmitted, 15 received, 0% packet loss, time 41999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.281/0.531/1.993/0.404 ms
[root@localhost ~]#
说明:
-i 3 发送周期为 3秒 -s 设置发送包的大小为1024 -t 设置TTL值为 255


原贴:http://www.cnblogs.com/peida/archive/2013/03/06/2945407.html

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